This document presents all the symbols of a Mmuock alphabet.

You may want to look at sample phrases.

Table of contents
  1. Letters
  2. Tones
  3. The dot above
  4. Representing the glottal stop
    1. Dot below
    2. Apostrophe
    3. ⟨h⟩
  5. Quotation marks
  6. Appendix
    1. How to type symbols
    2. More information

Letters of the Mmuock alphabet

A Mmuock alphabet: The Letters
lettera b c d dz e f g h i
capitalA B C D Dz E F G H I
sound[a][b][ʧ][d] [ʣ] [ǝ] [f] [ɡ] [h]/[ʔ] [i]
exampleṖā
bag
Bekéq
beans
Ċœah
hat
Nděm
God
Ndzěm
darkness
Mbēm
grain
Fong
cow
Ŋgěq
gun

here
Kih
namesake
letterj k l m n ñ (nh) ŋ (π)æ ɛ (ir) r
capitalJ K L M N Ñ (Nh) Ŋ (Π) Æ Ɛ (Ir)R
sound[ǰ] [k] [l] [m] [n] [ɲ] [ŋ] [ɛ] [ɪ][ɐ]
exampleNjiè
clothing
Kěq
bed
Lekǎ
whistle
Mbā
residence
Nēq
sunlight
Ñiā
animal
Ŋēq
person

people
lèlɛ̄
to hide
lèqœr̄
to go
letterer (σ)ø š (sh) o œ p pf ow (φ) q ur (ω)
capitalEr (Σ)Ø Š (Sh) O Œ P Pf Ow (Φ) Q Ur (Ω)
sound[ǝ] [ɯ] [ʃ] [ɔ] [ɨ] [p] [pf͡] [o] [ɣ][ɜ]
exampleḞσ
leaf
Ṫǿ
drum
Šià
mark et
Ndóŋ
cup
Lώ
ants
Ṗā
bag
Lepfσ́
sky
ow
yes
Qemlē
fig tree
lèsω̄h
[mm] to come
letterǝ (ar) s t ts u v w x y z
capitalƎ (Ar) S T Ts U V W X Y Z
sound[e] [s] [t] [ʦ] [u] [v] [w] [ʒ] [j] [z]
examplepǝ̣̀ǝ̄
that way

elephant

dad
Ṫsσ́
head
Q̇u
illness
Válé
disorder
Ẇáh
epilepsy
Ẋúóh
yam
Ẏǐk
odour
Żéq
thing

A note on alternative letters

Some letters can be writtten in more than one way. In the table above, some of the alternatives are written within brackets. Examples:

Notes on diagraphs

  1. Some letters of the alphabet—including the alternatives— appear as if they consist of two other characters. The letters include ⟨dz⟩, ⟨pf⟩, ⟨ow⟩, ⟨ts⟩, ⟨sh⟩, etc. The two characters must always be considered as one letter. That is, they must never be separated from each other.
  2. Should a tone mark or other diacritic be placed on a diagraph, the mark is placed on the first character of the diagraph. For example, ⟨έ⟩ would be written as ⟨ír⟩ and ⟨Ṧ⟩ as ⟨Ṡh⟩.

A note on ⟨ow⟩

  1. Tone is indicated on o, for example: öw.
  2. ⟨ow⟩ normally is never followed by a vowel letter, except itself. Therefore, the letter combination ow, when followed by a vowel letter, does not represent ⟨ow⟩ but ⟨o⟩⟨w⟩.
  3. In the unlikely evengt that a vowel letter (e.g. ⟨a⟩) needs to follow ⟨ow⟩— there really are no examples of that happening—, a hypen must be placed between the letters, viz.: ow-a.

Tones of the Mmuock language

We are using letter ⟨a⟩ as example and indicating the tone on it.

A Mmuock alphabet: The Tones
NumberNotationExampleNotes
2(none)pang the colour red
0ãpangpãng adjective: red
1āNgōngworld
«Te lā» Don't cry
Żøtē insult
3áNgóng farming
Ṫǿ drum
4àTà!Guess it!
«Te là» Don't cook it
Tø̀ stone
5 or ǎmale parent
Nděm God
Ndǒng lazy person
6àā or åntå five
7áa or ndáa tå twenty-five francs
8àá or «A ta̋.» She has guessed it.
9 or «Tă.» Do not return.
10ãà or âTǎ Tâ the father of the father
11áà or ȁA le tȁ She (overstayed and) did not return.
12 or paãng Mbā red compoundalso used but discouraged: ȃ
13aáā or Ya̐! interjection: shame on you!also used but discouraged: a̍
14àa or äA ndä túh She cooks it at night
15àã or Ṫetàã zè the courtyard is hisCompare: Ṫetàa zè his courtyard

The Dot Above

The dot above a consonant letter (at the begining of a word) indicates that there is an elided [a] before the letter. When the dot is used, the ⟨a⟩ must not be written. Examples:

Alternative symbol for the dot above

When a word starts with a capital letter, the dot above can be replaced with a small letter a. Examples:

Symbols for the glottal stop

There are 3 different symbols that can be used interchangeably to indicate the glottal stop. These are:
  1. the “dot below”
  2. The apostrophe ', and
  3. the letter ⟨h⟩ (only sometimes).

The Dot below

The dot below a vowel letter indicates a glottal stop after the vowel. Examples of the “dot below”:

The apostrophe

An apostrophe may be used instead of the “dot below”. Examples:

Letter ⟨h⟩

When the glottal stop is not followed by a vowel, ⟨h⟩ can be used instead of the dot and the apostrophe. That happens when the stop is at the end of the word, or is followed by ⟨m⟩, ⟨n⟩, ⟨t⟩ and other consonant letters. Examples:

The following are wrong, since ⟨h⟩ is followed by a vowel letter:

Quotation marks

Appendix

How to type characters

  1. On mobile device using android keyboard
  2. Using the orthography parser
  3. On the desktop

More information

If something does not work, or you need help or further info:

References

  1. The Sound of Mmuock (Vol 1: Orthography), 2nd Ed.; Bamenda: Magnolian Publishers. ISBN 978-9956-645-28-2.

Last updated: June 23, 2017